Crazy Jamaica Zooming in on Jamaica
  • Marijuana (sativa,marijuana,Cannabis)this Jamaican herb needs no introduction

     

    Medical use :

    a)Cannabis is used as a liniment for sprains,arthritic pains,asthma,bronchitis and migraine headaches.

    b)Cannabis will stimulate hair growth and get rid of dandruff and other scalp problems. It can be used as a final rinse or tea rubbed into the scalp.

    c) Can be used as a seasoning as the seeds contain a very nutritious oil. It can also be sprinkled in soups and other dishes.

    Use

    The medicinal value of cannabis is controversial. A large majority of national governments do not recognize the use of plant parts from the plant Cannabis Sativa as something that doctors can recommend to their patients. A number of these governments, including the U.S. government allows, however, in varying degrees, treatment with one or more specific, synthetic cannabinoids for one or more disorders.

    Supporters of medical cannabis argue that cannabis does have several well-documented beneficial effects.[2][3][4][5] Among these are: the amelioration of nausea and vomiting, stimulation of hunger in chemotherapy and AIDS patients, lowered intraocular eye pressure (shown to be effective for treating glaucoma), as well as gastrointestinal illness. Its effectiveness as an analgesic has been suggested—and disputed—as well.

    There are several methods for administration of dosage, including vaporizing or smoking dried buds, drinking, or eating extracts, and taking capsules. The comparable efficacy of these methods was the subject of an investigative study[5] conducted by the National Institutes of Health.

    Synthetic cannabinoids are available as prescription drugs in some countries. Examples are Marinol(The United States and Canada) andCesamet(Canada, Mexico, the United Kingdom, and the United States).

    While cannabis for recreational use is illegal in all parts of the world, though decriminalized in some, at least some use as a medicine is legal in a number of territories, including Canada, Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Israel, Italy, Finland, and Portugal. In the United States, federal law outlaws all use of herb parts from Cannabis, while some states have approved use of herb parts from Cannabis as medical cannabis in conflict with federal law. The United States Supreme Court has ruled in United States v. Oakland Cannabis Buyers’ Coop andGonzales v. Raich that the federal government has a right to regulate and criminalize cannabis, even for medical purposes.

    Clinical applications

    “Victoria”, the United States’ first legal medical marijuana plant grown by The Wo/Men’s Alliance for Medical Marijuana.[citation needed]

    A 2002 review of medical literature by Franjo Grotenhermen state that medical cannabis have established effects in the treatment of nausea, vomiting, premenstrual syndrome, unintentionalweight lossinsomnia, and lack of appetite. Other “relatively well-confirmed” effects were in the treatment of “spasticity, painful conditions, especially neurogenic painmovement disorders,asthma, [and] glaucoma“.[6]

    Preliminary findings indicate that cannabis-based drugs could prove useful in treating inflammatory bowel diseasemigrainesfibromyalgia, and related conditions.[7]

    Medical cannabis has also been found to relieve certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis[8] andspinal cord injuries[9][10][11] by exhibiting antispasmodic and muscle-relaxant properties as well as stimulating appetite.

    Other studies state that cannabis or cannabinoids may be useful in treating alcohol abuse,[12]amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,[13][14] collagen-induced arthritis,[15] asthma,[16] atherosclerosis,[17]bipolar disorder,[18][19] colorectal cancer,[20] HIV-Associated Sensory Neuropathy[21] depression,[22][23][24][25] dystonia,[26] epilepsy,[27][28][29]digestive diseases,[30] gliomas,[31][32] hepatitis C,[33] Huntington’s disease,[34] leukemia,[35] skin tumors,[36] methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA),[37] Parkinson’s disease,[38] pruritus,[39][40] posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD),[41] psoriasis,[42] sickle-cell disease,[43] sleep apnea,[44] and anorexia nervosa.[45] Controlled research on treating Tourette syndrome with a synthetic version oftetrahydrocannabinol (brand name Marinol), the main psychoactive chemical found in cannabis, showed the patients taking Marinol had a beneficial response without serious adverse effects;[46][47] other studies have shown that cannabis “has no effects on tics and increases the individuals inner tension”.[48] Case reports found that marijuana helped reduce tics, but validation of these results requires longer, controlled studies on larger samples.[49][50]

    Recent studies

    Alzheimer’s disease

    Research done by the Scripps Research Institute in California shows that the active ingredient in marijuana, THC, prevents the formation of deposits in the brain associated with Alzheimer’s disease. THC was found to prevent an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase from accelerating the formation of “Alzheimer plaques” in the brain more effectively than commercially marketed drugs. THC is also more effective at blocking clumps of protein that can inhibit memory and cognition in Alzheimer’s patients, as reported in Molecular Pharmaceutics.[51]

    Mental Disorders

    There has been evidence that smoking marijuana can have a positive effect on disorders such as Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression. Studies have shown that there are actual negative effects to this thought. In patients with bipolar disorder subjects have been shown to actually become better after smoking marijuana increasing the rate at which these patients go from high to low. In the case of depression many users have reported that their moods have become better. Research done on lab rats and animals has shown that marijuana can act as an anti-depressant but in other studies done on humans this is not the case, actually pushing the subjects further into their depression. A study of 50,000 Swedish soldiers who had smoked at least once were twice as likely to develop schizophrenia as those who had not smoked.[52]

    A study by Keele University commissioned by the British government found that between 1996 and 2005 there had been significant reductions in the incidence and prevalence of schizophrenia. From 2000 onwards there were also significant reductions in the prevalence of psychoses.

    The authors say this data is “not consistent with the hypothesis that increasing cannabis use in earlier decades is associated with increasing schizophrenia or psychoses from the mid-1990s onwards”. [53]

    Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    The evidence to date is conflicting as to whether smoking cannabis increases the risk of developing lung cancer or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among people who do not smoke tobacco. In 2006 a study by Hashibe, Morgenstern, Cui, Tashkin, et al.suggested that smoking cannabis does not, by itself, increase the risk of lung cancer. Several subsequent studies have found results suggesting the reverse, unfortunately many of these were not completed with proper scientific controls and have subsequently been discredited. Many studies did report a strongly synergistic effect, however, between tobacco use and smoking cannabis such that tobacco smokers who also smoked cannabis dramatically increased their already very high risk of developing lung cancer or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by as much as 300%. Some of these research results follow below:

    • In 2006, Hashibe, Morgenstern, Cui, Tashkin, et al. presented the results from a study involving 2,240 subjects that showed non-tobacco users who smoked marijuana did not exhibit an increased incidence of lung cancer or head-and-neck malignancies. These results were supported even among very long-term, very heavy users of marijuana.[54]

    Tashkin, a pulmonologist who has studied marijuana for 30 years, said, “It’s possible that tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in marijuana smoke may encourage apoptosis, or programmed cell death, causing cells to die off before they have a chance to undergo malignant transformation”. He further commented that “We hypothesized that there would be a positive association between marijuana use and lung cancer, and that the association would be more positive with heavier use. What we found instead was no association at all, and even a suggestion of some protective effect.”[unreliable medical source?][55][unreliable medical source?][56]

    • A case-control study of lung cancer in adults 55 years of age and younger found that the risk of lung cancer increased 8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2–15) for each joint-year of cannabis smoking, after adjustment for confounding variables including cigarette smoking, and 7% (95% CI 5–9) for each pack-year of cigarette smoking, after adjustment for confounding variables including cannabis smoking.[57]

    • A 2008 study by Hii, Tam, Thompson, and Naughton found that marijuana smoking leads to asymmetrical bullous disease, often in the setting of normal CXR and lung function. In subjects who smoke marijuana, these pathological changes occur at a younger age (approximately 20 years earlier) than in tobacco smokers.[58]

    • Researchers from the University of British Columbia presented a study at the American Thoracic Society 2007 International Conference showing that smoking marijuana and tobacco together more than tripled the risk of developing COPD over just smoking tobacco alone.[unreliable medical source?][59] Similar findings were released in April 2009 by the Vancouver Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease Research Group. The study reported that smoking both tobacco and marijuana synergistically increased the risk of respiratory symptoms and COPD. Smoking only marijuana, however, was not associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms of COPD.[unreliable medical source?][60][61] In a related commentary, pulmonary researcher Donald Tashkin wrote, “…we can be close to concluding that marijuana smoking by itself does not lead to COPD”.[62]

    Breast cancer

    According to a 2007 study at the California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, cannabidiol (CBD) may stop breast cancer from spreading throughout the body.[63] These researchers believe their discovery may provide a non-toxic alternative to chemotherapy while achieving the same results minus the painful and unpleasant side effects. The research team says that CBD works by blocking the activity of a gene called Id-1, which is believed to be responsible for a process called metastasis, which is the aggressive spread of cancer cells away from the original tumor site.[63]

    HIV/AIDS

    Investigators at Columbia University published clinical trial data in 2007 showing that HIV/AIDS patients who inhaled cannabis four times daily experienced substantial increases in food intake with little evidence of discomfort and no impairment of cognitive performance. They concluded that smoked marijuana has a clear medical benefit in HIV-positive patients.[64][65] In another study in 2008, researchers at theUniversity of California, San Diego School of Medicine found that marijuana significantly reduces HIV-related neuropathic pain when added to a patient’s already-prescribed pain management regimen and may be an “effective option for pain relief” in those whose pain is not controlled with current medications. Mood disturbance, physical disability, and quality of life all improved significantly during study treatment.[66]Despite management with opioids and other pain modifying therapies, neuropathic pain continues to reduce the quality of life and daily functioning in HIV-infected individuals. Cannabinoid receptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems have been shown to modulate pain perception. No serious adverse effects were reported, according to the study published by the American Academy of Neurology.[67] A study examining the effectiveness of different drugs for HIV associated neuropathic pain found that smoked Cannabis was one of only three drugs that showed evidence of efficacy.[68]

    Brain cancer

    A study by Complutense University of Madrid found the chemicals in marijuana promotes the death of brain cancer cells by essentially helping them feed upon themselves in a process called autophagy. The research team discovered that cannabinoids such as THC had anticancer effects in mice with human brain cancer cells and in people with brain tumors. When mice with the human brain cancer cells received the THC, the tumor shrank. Using electron microscopes to analyze brain tissue taken both before and after a 26- to 30-day THC treatment regimen, the researchers found that THC eliminated cancer cells while leaving healthy cells intact.[69] The patients did not have any toxic effects from the treatment; previous studies of THC for the treatment of cancer have also found the therapy to be well tolerated. However, the mechanisms which promote THC’s tumor cell–killing action are unknown.[69]

    Opioid dependence

    Injections of THC eliminate dependence on opiates in stressed rats, according to a research team at the Laboratory for Physiopathology of Diseases of the Central Nervous System (France) in the journal Neuropsychopharmacology.[70] Deprived of their mothers at birth, rats become hypersensitive to the rewarding effect of morphine and heroin (substances belonging to the opiate family), and rapidly become dependent. When these rats were administered THC, they no longer developed typical morphine-dependent behavior. In the striatum, a region of the brain involved in drug dependence, the production of endogenous enkephalins was restored under THC, whereas it diminished in rats stressed from birth which had not received THC. Researchers believe the findings could lead to therapeutic alternatives to existing substitution treatments.[70]

    In humans, drug treatment subjects who use cannabis intermittently are found to be more likely to adhere to treatment for opioid dependence.[71] Historically, similar findings were reported by Edward Birch, who, in 1889, reported success in treating opiate and chloral addiction with cannabis.[72]

    Controlling ALS Symptoms

    Recent research has been conducted on if the use of marijuana could control some of the symptoms of ALS or Lou Gehrig Disease. A survey was conducted on 131 people who suffered from ALS. The survey asked if the subjects had used marijuana in the last 12 months to control some of their symptoms. The survey resulted in 13 people who had used the drug in some form to control symptoms. The subjects all concluded that the symptoms of appetite loss, depression, pain, spasticity, drooling, and weakness.[73]

    Spasticity in multiple sclerosis

    A review of six randomized controlled trials of a combination of THC and CBD extracts for the treatment of MS related muscle spasticity reported, “Although there was variation in the outcome measures reported in these studies, a trend of reduced spasticity in treated patients was noted.” The authors postulated that “cannabinoids may provide neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory benefits in MS.”[74] A small study done on whether or not marijuana could be used to control tremors of MS patients was conducted. The study found that there was no noticeable difference of the tremors in the patients. Although there was no difference in the tremors the patients felt as if their symptoms had lessened and their quality of life had improved. The researchers concluded that the mood enhancing or cognitive effects that cannabis has on the brain could have given the patients the effect that their tremors where getting better.[73]

    Medicinal compounds

    Cannabis contains over 300 compounds. At least 66 of these are cannabinoids,[75][76] which are the basis for medical and scientific use of cannabis. This presents the research problem of isolating the effect of specific compounds and taking account of the interaction of these compounds.[77] Cannabinoids can serve as appetite stimulants, antiemeticsantispasmodics, and have some analgesic effects.[78] Five important cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant are tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabinol, β-caryophyllene, and cannabigerol.

    [edit]Tetrahydrocannabinol

    Main article: Tetrahydrocannabinol

    Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary compound responsible for the psychoactive effects of cannabis. The compound is a mild analgesic, and cellular research has shown the compound has antioxidant activity.[79] THC is believed to interfere with parts of the brain normally controlled by the endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitteranandamide.[80][81] Anandamide is believed to play a role in pain sensation, memory, and sleep.

    [edit]Cannabidiol

    Main article: Cannabidiol

    Cannabidiol (CBD), is a major constituent of medical cannabis. CBD represents up to 40% of extracts of the medical cannabis plant.[82]Cannabidiol has been shown to relieve convulsioninflammationanxiety, cough and congestion, nausea, and inhibits cancer cell growth.[83]Recent studies have shown cannabidiol to be as effective as atypical antipsychotics in treating schizophrenia.[84] Because cannabidiol relieves the aforementioned symptoms, cannabis strains with a high amount of CBD may benefit people with multiple sclerosis, frequentanxiety attacks and Tourette syndrome.[74][83][85]

    [edit]Cannabinol

    Main article: Cannabinol

    Cannabinol (CBN) is a therapeutic cannabinoid found in Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica.[86] It is also produced as a metabolite, or a breakdown product, of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).[87] CBN acts as a weak agonist of the CB1 and CB2 receptors, with lower affinity in comparison to THC.[88][89]

    [edit]β-Caryophyllene

    Main article: Caryophyllene

    Part of the mechanism by which medical cannabis has been shown to reduce tissue inflammation is via the compound β-caryophyllene.[90] A cannabinoid receptor called CB2 plays a vital part in reducing inflammation in humans and other animals.[90] β-Caryophyllene has been shown to be a selective activator of the CB2 receptor.[90] β-Caryophyllene is especially concentrated in cannabis essential oil, which contains about 12–35% β-caryophyllene.[90]

    [edit]Cannabigerol

    Main article: Cannabigerol

    Like cannabidiol, cannabigerol is not psychoactive. Cannabigerol has been shown to relieve intraoccular pressure, which may be of benefit in the treatment of glaucoma.[91][92]

    • Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

    • Cannabidiol (CBD) is known to relieve convulsion, aiding those with diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

    • Cannabinol (CBN).

    • β-Caryophyllene has important anti-inflammatory properties.

    • Cannabigerol.

    [edit]Pharmacologic THC and THC derivatives

    In the USA, the FDA has approved several cannabinoids for use as medical therapies: dronabinol (Marinol) and nabilone. These medicines are taken orally.

    These medications are usually used when first line treatments for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy fail to work. In extremely high doses and in rare cases “psychotomimetic” side effects are possible. The other commonly used antiemetic drugs are not associated with these side effects.

    Canasol is a cannabis-based medication for glaucoma that relieves intraocular pressure symptoms associated with late-stage glaucoma.

    It was created by an optomolgist, Dr. Albert Lockhart and Dr. Manley E. West, and began distribution in 1987.[93][94] As of 2003, it was still being distributed in the United Kingdom, several US states, and several Caribbean nations. [95]

    It is notable for being one of the first cannabis-containing pharmaceuticals to be developed for the modern pharmaceutical market and being one of the few such pharmaceuticals to have ever been legally marketed in the United States.[94][96]

    The prescription drug Sativex, an extract of cannabis administered as a sublingual spray, has been approved in Canada for the adjunctive treatment (use along side other medicines) of both multiple sclerosis and cancer related pain.[97][98] Sativex has also been approved in the United Kingdom, New Zealand, and the Czech Republic, and is expected to gain approval in other European countries.[99][100][101] William Notcutt is one of the chief researchers that has developed Sativex, and he has been working with GW and founder Geoffrey Guy since the company’s inception in 1998. Notcutt states that the use of MS as the disease to study “had everything to do with politics.”[102]

    Medication

    Approval

    Country

    Licensed indications

    Cost

    Nabilone

    1985

    USA, Canada

    Nausea of cancer chemotherapy that has failed to respond adequately to other antiemetics

    $4000.00 U.S. for a year’s supply (in Canada)[103]

    Canasol

    1987

    USA, Canada, several Caribbean nations

    Introcular pressure associated with late-stage Glaucoma

    Marinol

    1985

    USA

    Canada (1992)

    Nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy in patients who have failed to respond adequately to conventional treatments

    $652 U.S. for 30 doses @ 10 mg online[104]

    1992

    USA

    Anorexia associated with AIDS–related weight loss[105]

    Sativex

    1995

    Canada

    Adjunctive treatment for the symptomatic relief of neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis in adults

    $9,351 Canadian per year[106]

    1997

    Canada

    Pain due to cancer

    [source ;  wikipedia]

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